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660801 - Lecture BG 04.14-19 - New York

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His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada

660801BG.NY - August 01, 1966


na māṁ karmāṇi limpanti
na me karma-phale spṛhā
iti māṁ yo 'bhijānāti
karmabhir na sa badhyate
(BG 4.14)

Now . . .

(aside) You can come please forward. Yes. Yes. Come forward. There is . . . sit down.

Karmabhir sa na badhyate. Now, the whole world is bound by his own karma, action. Everyone, every living entity . . . in the Brahma-saṁhitā there is a nice verse about this . . .

There is a nice verse, yas tu . . . beginning from the germ . . . there is a germ which is called indra-gopa. You know that among the living entities, the germs are in very minute form. You cannot see even with your microscope. In a, in a space of one millimeter, you can find millions of germs. That is scientific truth. So beginning from the germs, which are called . . .

Beginning from the germs up to the heavenly kingdom . . . the king of heaven is called Indra, and the smallest, minutest germ, it is also called indra-gopa in Sanskrit language. So in the Brahma-saṁhitā (Bs 5.54) it is said that, "Beginning from this indra up to that Indra . . ." That means "Beginning from the germ which is known as indra-gopa up to the point of the king who is also known as Indra, all of them are bound up by the reaction of his own karma, or his own work."

Every work which you are doing, good or bad, we have to suffer or enjoy the reaction of our work. And so long we have to suffer or enjoy the reaction of our work, as long as we shall go on like this, so long we have to accept this material body. This material body is just given to us by the arrangement of nature's law for the exact status of suffering or enjoyment.

Just like you have seen different animals, they have got different process of eating. Say for tiger. Tiger, they have bodies made for eating raw flesh and raw blood. So all the body is so made that they have got particular nails and jaws and teeth so that they can do that.

Similarly, you can see the hog. They have to eat the stool. Oh, they have got a particular shape of mouth so that they can easily do that. Now, we are human being. We are meant for taking vegetables and fruits. Now, our teeth is just like knife which can cut the vegetables and the fruits.

So all these bodies, I mean to say . . . I am giving particular stress to the body. A king's body, a poor man's body. A poor man, he has to work very hard. His body is very sturdy. He can work very nicely. But a son of very aristocratic family or king, oh, his body is very delicate. He cannot work. He can apply his brain in something else.

So, so long we are . . . these bodies are made according to the different status of our work we have done in our past life. And next body is being prepared according to the work which we are doing now. But here Kṛṣṇa says that as soon as one can understand the transcendental nature of Kṛṣṇa's activities, he becomes free from the reaction of activities.

Now, here is the question, that because we are now preparing ourself to have our spiritual body or spiritual life developed, and being freed from this material existence, therefore our duty should be such so that we may not be entangled again into this material body. That can be made possible if we are Kṛṣṇa conscious. If we study Kṛṣṇa, what is Kṛṣṇa, what are His transcendental activities, how His energies are acting in this material world or spiritual world, all this . . . it is a great science. Kṛṣṇa is a great science.

So if we study Kṛṣṇa science with great attention, then the result will be that we shall be free from the reaction of our activities. This is clearly said here, na mam karmāṇi limpanti na me karma-phale spṛhā (BG 4.14). The Lord has nothing to do. He is full. He has nothing to do. But why He does? Just to set example. Set example. He's not bound up by the works which He is doing in the material world. This science has to be learned. Na me karma-phale spṛhā. And anyone who understands this transcendental nature of Kṛṣṇa, he is also becoming free from the reaction of karma.

evaṁ jñātvā kṛtaṁ karma
pūrvair api mumukṣubhiḥ
kuru karmaiva tasmāt tvaṁ
pūrvaiḥ pūrvataraṁ kṛtam
(BG 4.15)

Now, the whole spiritual process is to follow the example of the previous ācāryas who have attained, I mean to . . . success.

(aside) These boys, wherefrom they come? They disturb.

evaṁ jñātvā kṛtaṁ karma
pūrvair api mumukṣubhiḥ
kuru karmaiva tasmāt tvaṁ
pūrvaiḥ pūrvataraṁ kṛtam
(BG 4.15)

Now, there are . . . Arjuna . . . Kṛṣṇa is advising Arjuna that "If you act and follow in the footprints of the previous ācāryas and previous great devotees and kings who have done in their life karma-yoga, acting for Kṛṣṇa, if we follow that principle, then you shall also become free from the reaction of activities." Because Arjuna was very much afraid for being entangled in the reaction of his fighting, Kṛṣṇa therefore assures that "You shall not be . . . if you follow, if you act, if you fight for My sake, then you will not be entangled by the reaction of karma." Kiṁ karma kim akarmeti . . .

kiṁ karma kim akarmeti
kavayo 'py atra mohitāḥ
tat te karma pravakṣyāmi
yaj jñātvā mokṣyase 'śubhāt
(BG 4.16)

Now, people are misled what is karma, what is actually work, and what is not work, akarma. Kiṁ karma kim akarmeti kavayo 'pi. Kavayaḥ means great sages, great saintly persons, great philosophers. They are also sometimes bewildered to understand what class of activities are genuine and what class of activities are non genuine.

Therefore Kṛṣṇa says that, "I shall teach you what are genuine activities and what are non genuine activities." Tat te karma pravakṣyāmi yaj jñātvā mokṣyase aśubhāt. Yaj jñātvā: "If you understand the principle of working, then you shall get free from the bondage, material bondage."

We have to work in such a way that we may . . . may not be entangled with this material bondage. Otherwise, as we have explained, this body is our material bondage, and it is the result of our activities. So we have to perform our activities so nicely and so cautiously so that I may not be entangled, I may be free even in this life, and tyaktvā dehaṁ punar janma naiti (BG 4.9): I can, after leaving this present body, I'll have no more to come into this material world. This science is being taught by Kṛṣṇa to Arjuna. And the whole activity, the whole activity is that if we engage ourself, as we find it in the Eleventh Chapter, last verse:

mat-karma-kṛn mat-paramo
mad-bhaktaḥ saṅga-varjitaḥ
nirvairaḥ sarva-bhūteṣu
yaḥ sa mām eti pāṇḍava
(BG 11.55)

Now, this one verse is sufficient to teach the essence of Śrīmad Bhagavad-gītā, that "Anyone who is engaged in My work," "in My work," mat-karma-kṛt . . . then what is that, "My work"? That, "My work" is explained in the last word of the . . . and the last instruction of the Bhagavad-gītā, that sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja (BG 18.66). Arjuna is taught—and with the example of Arjuna, every one of us is taught—that we have to work only which is sanctioned by Kṛṣṇa. Sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja (BG 18.66).

That is the . . . that is the mission of human life. But we do not know that. We do not know that. And because we do not know that, we engage ourself with so many work which is concerned with the bodily and material conception of life. So mat-karma-kṛt. So one has to do what Kṛṣṇa desires, just like Arjuna did. Kṛṣṇa desired that he should fight. Arjuna did not like to fight, but because Kṛṣṇa desired, he accepted to fight. This is Kṛṣṇa's work. That we have to select.

Now, what is the work at the present moment for us, Kṛṣṇa's work? Kṛṣṇa is not present now to dictate that, "This is My work." Just like Arjuna was fortunate enough. He was personally present before Arjuna. Lord Kṛṣṇa was personally present, and He was directing. But that does not mean that we have no direction. We have direction. We have direction. In the Bhagavad-gītā you'll find that anyone who preaches the gospel of Bhagavad-gītā to the people of the world, he is the most dear, the dearest person in the world to Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa accepts him the dearest person.

So therefore our duty is to preach the principles of this Bhagavad-gītā, to make people Kṛṣṇa conscious. People are suffering for want of Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Therefore each and every one of us should be engaged in the preaching work of Kṛṣṇa consciousness for the benefit of the whole world.

Lord Caitanya, whose picture you see in the front of our this store, Lord Caitanya very nicely preached this philosophy of Kṛṣṇa consciousness.

āmāra ājñāya guru hañā tāra' ei deśa
yāre dekha tāre kaha 'kṛṣṇa'-upadeśa
(CC Madhya 7.128)

The Lord says, āmāra ājñāya. Because He came with this mission, to preach Kṛṣṇa consciousness, so He says: "Just take My order, and all of you, you become the spiritual master." Guru hañā. Anyone who teaches people Kṛṣṇa consciousness, never mind what, what he is and where he is, he should be understood the spiritual master.

So Lord Kṛṣṇa, Lord Caitanya gives order to everyone that āmāra ājñāya guru hañā tāra' ei deśa: "Every country, every, I mean to say, province, you go everywhere and just preach this Kṛṣṇa consciousness."

āmāra ājñāya guru hañā tāra' ei deśa
yāre dekha tāre kaha 'kṛṣṇa'-upadeśa
(CC Madhya 7.128)

Kṛṣṇa-upadeśa means this Bhagavad-gītā, the instruction given by Kṛṣṇa. That is kṛṣṇa-upadeśa. And kṛṣṇa-upadeśa is also Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam is full of instruction by which one can become Kṛṣṇa conscious.

Similarly, in the Bhagavad-gītā also, we receive the instruction how we can become Kṛṣṇa conscious. So Lord Caitanya selects these very two particular books, Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam and Bhagavad-gītā, and He asks everyone, in any part of the world, to take up this matter very seriously and preach in the world. That is the direct order of Kṛṣṇa.

So if we take up this missionary work, to preach Bhagavad-gītā as it is, without any interpretation and without any motive behind it, as it is, as Kṛṣṇa said . . . we should present as it is. People misrepresent Bhagavad-gītā by their own interpretation. That should not be done. Bhagavad-gītā as it is should be presented before the people of the world. They are suffering for want of Kṛṣṇa consciousness, and as soon as they become Kṛṣṇa conscious, their life becomes happy. So this is the mission of this Society, International Society for Krishna Consciousness.

As Kṛṣṇa advises, saṅga-varjitaḥ: "You should not have any attraction or any attachment for these worldly activities." If you have got attachment or attraction for these material activities, then you cannot have Kṛṣṇa . . . you cannot become Kṛṣṇa conscious. But that does not mean you should be inimical to the people of the world. No. It is your duty to give them the highest instruction, spiritual instruction, that "You become Kṛṣṇa conscious." And try your best. Try your best.

Nirvairaḥ. You should not be anyone's enemy. Others may become your enemy. Because it is quite natural. Anyone who comes with the message of the Supreme Lord, there are persons who become his enemy. Just like Lord Jesus Christ, he came. His only fault was that he was preaching the message of God, and people—some people, not all people—become his enemy, and he was crucified.

So this is the world. Anyone who comes as a most, I mean to say, beneficial friend of the world, people take him as the enemy, and they do the same mistake again so that they are bound up again by their own work and they remain in this material world to repeat birth and death, one after another, one after another.

So we should be very much cautious. We should not miss this chance of this human body to become Kṛṣṇa consciousness . . . to become conscious of Kṛṣṇa. So therefore we must know how to work. How to work. Kiṁ karma kim akarmeti (BG 4.16).

If we do not know how to work, then we shall be entangled in these material activities. Therefore Kṛṣṇa says saṅga-varjitaḥ. Of course, a Kṛṣṇa conscious person, he also acts just like another material actor, but because he works in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, therefore he's not bound up.

Just like take the example of Arjuna. He also fought just like ordinary military man, but because he fought in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, therefore he was not bound up by the reaction of such fighting. Fighting is not necessary. Fighting is not necessary. Peace, peace is necessary. But sometimes peace is disturbed. At that time, fighting is also necessary. You cannot . . . you cannot absolutely give up the process of fighting in this material world. That is not possible. Because there are persons who will create trouble. Just like we are experiencing. We are not going to do any harm to anybody, but sometimes they are coming and creating disturbance.

So these disturbing elements are there, and this is always there. The material nature is like that. Therefore fighting cannot be abolished in the . . . when it is necessary, absolutely necessary. In the Battle of Kurukṣetra, Lord Kṛṣṇa advocated this fighting because it was absolutely necessary.

So anything—it does not matter what it is—when it is sanctioned by Kṛṣṇa, it has no reaction. That is the real work. Other, anything which we do which may be very good work in the estimation of this material world, but that is bound to make you entangled in this material world. This secret one should learn.

karmaṇo hy api boddhavyaṁ boddhavyaṁ ca vikarmaṇaḥ akarmaṇaś ca boddhavyaṁ gahanā karmaṇo gatiḥ (BG 4.17)

Karmaṇo gatiḥ, the path of karma, is very intricate. Therefore one should understand what is actually karma and what is akarma and what is vikarma. And knowing this, one should perform karma. But one thing is that if we simply engage ourself in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, then everything becomes clear. Otherwise, we have to make discrimination, "What I should do, what I should not do, so that I may not be entangled."

Just like in ordinary life we, whatever we do, we sometimes, we may unconsciously doing something which is against the law, and therefore we become bound up by the laws of the state, and sometimes we are in trouble. So similarly, in the laws of nature also, the laws of nature is very strict. There is no excuse. The laws of nature is very stringent. Just like the fire. Fire, it burns. That is natural. This is the law of nature. So even a child touches fire, the fire does not excuse that, "Because it is child, oh, his hand may be . . . may not be burned." No. That is not possible. So we have to make our work very cautiously. We have to select our work very cautiously. Otherwise, the stringent laws of nature will react, and we shall be bound by the laws of material nature and suffer.

The Lord says that karmaṇo hy api boddhavyam. One should understand how to work and one should understand what is not to be done. Akarmaṇaś ca boddhavyam. Karmaṇo hy api boddhavyaṁ boddhavyaṁ ca vikarmaṇaḥ. Karma, akarma and vikarma. There are three things. Karma means prescribed duties. Prescribed duties. That is called karma. And akarma . . . vikarma means doing against the prescribed duties. That is called vikarma. And akarma means something doing which has no reaction. That is not . . . of course, in the execution of such work, it appears to be working, but practically it has no reaction. That is vikarma. And that vikarma is when we act on account of the Supreme. That is when we . . . Kṛṣṇa-karma-kṛt. When we work under the direction of Kṛṣṇa, that has no reaction. Otherwise, karma, one should do prescribed duties, and one should not do which is not prescribed.

For example, for example, just like the state. The state has got some laws. Now, suppose if you commit murder, it will be hang . . . you will be hanged. That is the state law. So if you again, against the state law you commit some murder, you will be hanged. This is vikarma, and I should be cautious. But when the state orders, itself that, "You go and fight. Kill the enemy," that is neither karma nor vikarma. So similarly, when we act under the direction of Kṛṣṇa, that is akarma. That means that karma, that kind of activities, has no reaction. Otherwise, we shall have to act very cautiously so that I may not be entangled with the reaction of my karma.

karmaṇy akarma yaḥ paśyed
akarmāṇi ca karma yaḥ
sa buddhimān manuṣyeṣu
sa yuktaḥ kṛtsna-karma-kṛt
(BG 4.18)

Now here is a nice verse. The Lord says, "One who can see karmāṇi, akarma, any work which is being done, but it has no reaction . . ." karmāṇi, akarma yaḥ. "I am doing something, but the ultimate result of that work has no reaction." One who can see like that . . . karmaṇy akarma yaḥ paśyed akarmāṇi ca yaḥ karma. And akarmāṇi means one who is trying to avoid the reaction of karma, but he is being entangled in karma.

Sa buddhimān manuṣyeṣu (BG 4.18): "He is the most intelligent person." Sa yuktaḥ kṛtsna-karma-kṛt, sa: "He is dovetailed with Kṛṣṇa consciousness, and therefore, after doing so many work"—kṛtsna mean all sorts of work—"still, he is free," karmaṇy akarma, "even working."

Just see, the Arjuna. Arjuna is fighting, and the other party, Duryodhana, is also fighting. Now, how you can understand that Arjuna is free from reaction but Duryodhana is not free from reaction? The fighting is both . . . both parties are fighting. Externally, ephemerally, we can see simply that they are fighting. But who is bound up by reaction? Who is not bound up reaction? Arjuna is not bound up by reaction. Why? He is fighting under the order of Kṛṣṇa. So we have to see like that, who is working with Kṛṣṇa consciousness.

Anyone who is working Kṛṣṇa consciousness, we should see that he is not being bound up. This is called karmaṇy akarma. Akarma means which has no reaction. So although I see somebody is working, but because he is working in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, therefore it should be understood that his work is not producing any reaction.

So this intelligent vision is recommended here by Kṛṣṇa that sa buddhimān: "Anyone who is working and who can see such work, who can understand such work," sa buddhimān manuṣyeṣu ([[BG 4.18 (1972)|BG 4.18), "in the human society, he is very intelligent." He is very intelligent. Otherwise, sometimes bhakti, the devotional service of the Lord . . . just like I'll give you a crude example.

Just like a boy, he is flying kite, and he is moving his reel containing the thread. Now, from a distant place, you'll find that he is moving his thread, but, moving his reel, but sometimes, moving his reel he is getting down the kite, and moving his reel he is getting higher and higher the kite. So from distant place, we can see that there is moving of the reel, but the action is different.

Similarly, simply by seeing the movement of a person, that he is also acting, that is not final judgment. We have to see what sort of acting he is doing. If he's acting in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, if we can see a person is acting in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, then we can understand that he's free from the reaction. And if he's not acting in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, but externally, from our material estimation, we can see that, "Oh, he is doing very good work. He's very doing good work . . ."

Just like Arjuna, when he first refused to work, refused to fight that, "My dear Kṛṣṇa, it is not possible for me to fight with my relatives, brothers. I am not going to fight," but from material estimation, this conclusion, this decision of Arjuna, is very good. Very good. So materially, from material standing of, standpoint of view, that he is not going to commit nonviolence . . . violence—he is nonviolent—he's very good man. But from spiritual point of view, it is not so. From spiritual point of view, it is not so.

So one has to see. Simply by external features, that one is working and one is not working, that we cannot . . . what is the standard of work? Under what consciousness he's working? If he's working in material consciousness, then he's being bound up. However good may be that work, he's being bound up.

Now, what is the binding reaction of good material work? Just try to understand. Good material work . . . suppose you have done most charitable work, munificent work, and you have started so many, I mean to say, philanthropic institution. That's all right. These are . . . from material estimation, these things are very good work. But you are being bound up. You are being bound up. In which way you are being bound up? That these things are called puṇya-karma, pious work. When you do pious work, you get four results. What are the four results? Janma-aiśvarya-śruta-śrī (SB 1.8.26)

Janma-aiśvarya-śruta-śrī. If you do pious work, you can get reaction in four ways. You can get your birth in a very nice family, just like in the family of a brāhmaṇa, in the family of a rich man. For pious work, one can get his janma. And aiśvarya. Aiśvarya means you can become very rich man by pious work. Janmaiśvarya-śruta (SB 1.8.26).

Śruta means you can become very learned scholar. These are the results of pious work. Janmaiśvarya-śruta, and śrī: you can become very beautiful by pious work. These are the results of pious work.

Similarly, just the opposite: if you do vicious work, then you, you have to go to the lower-class family or even the animal family, lower-class birth, or become a fool, illiterate, and become not very good-looking. So many things. These are the reaction of pious and vicious work.

Now, taking it for granted that I am doing all pious work, that's all right. And I am getting my birth in a very rich family or very pure family, just like brāhmiṇ family or something like that. I am getting myself very good education. I am very beautiful to see. And I am very rich man, all these. But our point is that suppose if you are rich man, suppose if you are very learned man, but you are not free from the stringent laws of material world. The whole point of vision should be targeted there that, "I am not going to be under the stricture of this material world." If we miss that point, then we shall be captivated by this aristocratic family or good education or beautiful body or richness. We shall be . . .

One should understand that "In spite of having all these facilities of material life, I am not free from four things: janma-mṛtyu-jarā-vyādhi (BG 13.9)."

Janma-mṛtyu-jarā-vyādhi. "I am not free from four, four these things, material laws of nature." What is that? "I am not free from repeated birth and death. I am not free from old age. I am not free from diseases."

Therefore Kṛṣṇa has recommended in the Bhagavad-gītā that ābrahma-bhuvanāl lokāḥ punar āvartino 'rjuna (BG 8.16): "My dear Arjuna, if you go up to the highest planet, which is called Brahmaloka, where there is long duration of life and all other enjoyments—they are thousands and thousands times better than enjoyment here—but still, ābrahma-bhuvanāl lokāḥ punar āvartino 'rjuna, then you have to come again. The repetition of birth and death is there also. Therefore your aim should be mad-dhāma . . . yad gatvā na nivartante tad dhāma paramaṁ mama (BG 15.6): "You have to go back to My planet, My kingdom. That will make you perfect."

So this work, good work or bad work from the material point of view, may be superficially very good. But what . . . how long I shall remain a rich man? How long I shall remain a beautiful man? This is not my permanent life. Suppose if my life is for hundred years, say. I can remain a rich man, I can remain a learned man, I can remain a beautiful man, say, for fifty or sixty or hundred years. But your life is not for hundred years or sixty years or thousands years or millions of years. You are eternal. You have to attain your eternal life. That is the whole problem.

But, that problem you have to solve. That problem can be solved when you are Kṛṣṇa conscious, so that by Kṛṣṇa conscious, when you leave this body, you will no more have to come to this material world and accept this material body or suffer and enjoy thereof. That is the point. The point is very difficult for common men, but this is the point. This is the point. I have to avoid this material existence altogether. That is the point. It is . . . it is not the question of improving my material condition. That is not the solution.

If I . . . just like in a prison house, if you want to improve your condition, you become a very good prisoner, and the government gives you A-class status. There are three classes of status in prison life. Some are suffering the prison life in the A-class status. Some of them are suffering in the B-class status. There are also classes. Just like when some political leader is put into prison, they are given A-class status. But a sane man, a sane man should not be satisfied by becoming an A-class prisoner, A-class prisoner.

So we are, in this material world, some of us are in the A-class prisoner, some of us are B-class prisoner, some of us are C-class prisoner. So to become an A-class prisoner from C-class prisoner is not the solution of our problem. The problem should be solved that, "Let me become completely free, completely free from the prison life." That is the whole problem.

karmaṇy akarma yaḥ paśyed
akarmāṇi ca karma yaḥ
sa buddhimān manuṣyeṣu
sa yuktaḥ kṛtsna-karma-kṛt
(BG 4.18)

"Anyone who can understand the process of karma, the process of work, in this way, he is the most intelligent person in this world." Most intelligent person. Not that a person who has passed M.A., Ph.D. examination from the university de . . . offering country. The person who understands this problem of life, he is the most intelligent person. That we should learn. He is the most intelligent person.

yasya sarve samārambhāḥ
tam āhuḥ paṇḍitaṁ budhāḥ
(BG 4.19)

Paṇḍita. Paṇḍita means learned, and budha means one who is well-versed. He is called budha. Budha, this very term you'll find in another place of Bhagavad-gītā, in the Tenth Chapter, budhā bhāva-samanvitāḥ.

ahaṁ sarvasya prabhavo
mattaḥ sarvaṁ pravartate
iti matvā bhajante māṁ
budhā bhāva-samanvitāḥ
(BG 10.8)

That budha you'll find in the Tenth Chapter, and the same budha, paṇḍita, paṇḍita and budha. Paṇḍita, according to Bhagavad-gītā, paṇḍita, paṇḍita means learned man. The Sanskrit word paṇḍita means . . . and budha is "well-versed."

Now who is well-versed? And who is paṇḍita? A very learned man from . . . by academic education may not be a learned man according to the view of Bhagavad-gītā. Bhagavad-gītā says: "He is the learned man who can see everyone on the equal footing, equal level."

brāhmaṇe gavi hastini
śuni caiva śva-pāke ca
paṇḍitāḥ sama-darśinaḥ
(BG 5.18)

A paṇḍita, paṇḍita can see . . . paṇḍita means a learned man can see that "Here is a learned brāhmiṇ." In India, according to Vedic civilization, a learned brāhmiṇ is considered to be the topmost man in human society. So therefore He is taking the example that "Here is a very learned brāhmiṇ." Vidyā-vinaya-sampanne brāhmaṇe. Not only he is brāhmiṇ, but he is very gentle. Vidyā means . . . what is the result of vidyā? Education means one becomes gentleman. That is the result of vidyā. If one is not a gentleman, then his learning is not accepted according to the Vedic literature. So paṇḍita means that one who is learned and gentle.

So another paṇḍita sees vidyā-vinaya-sampanne, a brāhmiṇ, learned and gentle, vidyā-vinaya-sampanne brāhmaṇe gavi, and a cow, vidyā-vinaya-sampanne gavi ha . . . and an elephant, and śva-pāke . . . śva-pāke ca śuni ceta. Śva-pāke means there is a class of men who eats dog. They are counted amongst the lower class in India. Śva-pāke ca śuni ca. Śuni ca means dog. So dog also, not taken very good animal in the society. But a paṇḍita—either a dog, either a cow, either an elephant, either a, a, I mean to say, dog-eater, or a learned brāhmaṇa—he sees all of them on the same level. That is paṇḍita.

Why he sees on the same level? Do you mean to say that a learned brāhmiṇ, a high-class brāhmiṇ, he is just like as good as a dog? No. A learned brāhmin is not as good as a dog. But how, how, then, the paṇḍita sees on the equal footing? Oh, because he does not see on the skin, but he sees on the spirit. Therefore he's paṇḍita. One who has learned this art, to see in any living being only the spirit he sees, that "Here is a living being. He's a spiritual spark. He's a spirit soul. But he has got a different covering, body, only."

Just like in the Bhagavad-gītā it is said that vāsāṁsi jīrṇāni (BG 2.22): "This body is just like our dress." Suppose a very learned man has come in a shabby dress. Do you think that he should be dishonored? If he's known, of course.

Just like our this sannyāsī dress. It is not very costly dress. It is a loincloth. It is very cheap. But sometimes people misunderstand that "Here is a beggar." And sometimes we are respected. So simply by dress we should not see any living entity. Whether . . . either he's a dog, or he's a, in the estimation of the society, a lower-class man, or a very high-class man, or a cow, but we shall see that, "Here is a spirit soul." Anyone who can understand the spiritual vision of life, he is paṇḍita. He is paṇḍita.

And according to Cāṇakya Paṇḍita . . . Cāṇakya, he was a great politician, and he says . . . now, what is the standard of education? Standard of education. Now, he has given very nice, three words, three words for standard of education, who is perfect in education. He says:

mātṛvat para-dāreṣu
para-dravyeṣu loṣṭravat
ātmavat sarva-bhūteṣu
yaḥ paśyati sa paṇḍitaḥ
(Cāṇakya Paṇḍita)

Paṇḍita. This paṇḍita. This paṇḍita, explanation of paṇḍita. Now, who is a paṇḍita? Now, mātṛvat para-dāreṣu: "He is the learned man who sees all women as his mother." Except one's married wife, one should see every woman as his mother. Mātṛvat. Mātṛ means mother. Vat means just like. Mātṛvat para-dāreṣu. Para-dāreṣu means other women except one's own wife, married wife.

Mātṛvat para-dāreṣu para-dravyeṣu loṣṭravat: "And other's property should be accepted just like refused garbage in the street." Just like we don't care for all the garbages. Simply if others' money or others' property is there, sometimes we hanker, we should think, "Oh, this all nonsense, just like garbage." Mātṛvat para-dāreṣu para-dravyeṣu loṣṭravat, ātmavat sarva-bhūteṣu. And loṣṭra means that rubbles, just like stone rubbles. You see? There are so many rubbles and, er, strewn over the street. Nobody cares for that. Similarly, if others' money is thrown over the street, nobody . . . he should not care. He should not collect: "Oh, here is some money. Let me take."

So mātṛvat para-dāreṣu para-dravyeṣu loṣṭravat, ātmavat sarva-bhūteṣu. And he should see everyone . . . this ātmavat sarva-bhūteṣu was preached by Lord Buddha, this philosophy. This one philosophy was, I mean to say, taught throughout the whole world by Lord Buddha, that there should be no animal killing. Ātmavat sarva-bhūteṣu. No living entity should be given suffer, even by words. That is real life. Ātmavat . . . yaḥ paśyati. One who has such vision of life, he is called learned. He is called learned—not by educational qualifications. One who has acquired . . . phalena paricīyate. Education is understood, how far a man is educated, by his behavior. By his vision of life it will be estimated, not by the degrees. Ātmavat sarva-bhūteṣu yaḥ paśyati sa paṇḍitaḥ.

Similarly, here also, here also the word paṇḍita, paṇḍita, has been used. So I have just given you some explanation of paṇḍita from different angle of vision. And budha also. Budha. In the Bhagavad-gītā you'll find the definition of budha. Budha means well versed. Well versed. Well versed means who has got . . . studied lots of books of knowledge. He is called budha. Now, how one becomes budha? By studying, one should have concluded this. What is that conclusion? That is stated in the Bhagavad-gītā by Lord Kṛṣṇa, ahaṁ sarvasya prabhavaḥ.

ahaṁ sarvasya prabhavo
mattaḥ sarvaṁ pravartate
iti matvā bhajante māṁ
budhā bhāva-samanvitāḥ
(BG 10.8)

The well-versed person is he who has understood that Kṛṣṇa is the original fountainhead of all emanations. All emanations, whatever we see, they are all emanations from Kṛṣṇa. That is the sci . . . one who has understood this, this fact, this transcendental fact, he is well versed, budha.

Ahaṁ sarvasya prabhavo mattaḥ sarvaṁ pravartate: "And everything is coming out of Me." Just like the sunshine is coming out of the sun. Nobody knows for how many years, how millions and millions of years, the sunshine is coming out of the sun. But still, the sun is still as it is. Similarly, the all the energies—the material energy, spiritual energy, lower energy, higher energy—everything is coming out of Kṛṣṇa.

So one who has understood this science, the Kṛṣṇa science, budhā bhāva-samanvitāḥ, then what he becomes? His sign that . . . what is the sign that he has understood? Oh, he becomes a devotee of Kṛṣṇa. He becomes completely Kṛṣṇa consciousness. That is the sign of being well versed, well versed. And this is the sign of becoming the paṇḍita, the learned. Paṇḍita, learned. So:

yasya sarve samārambhāḥ
tam āhuḥ paṇḍitaṁ budhāḥ
(BG 4.19)

One who has who is learned enough, one who has got this knowledge, that "We have to work in Kṛṣṇa consciousness," and he has no more lust to enjoy this material world, one who has no more lust, kāma-saṅkalpa-varjitāḥ . . . everything what we do in this material world, we have got a determination that, "I shall enjoy the fruits of this work like this, the fruits of that work in that way." That is called kāma-saṅkalpa, determination of lust. So one who is free from such lust, kāma-saṅkalpa-varjitāḥ . . .

And how it is possible? Jñānāgni-dagdha-karmāṇam. Jñānāgni. Just like fire, fire burns everything which you put into it. Similarly, one has developed . . . one who has developed the sense, the real knowledge that, "My life's mission, the . . . is only to go back to Kṛṣṇa and become Kṛṣṇa consciousness," that is the highest type of knowledge. They're just like fire. So in that fire of highest type of knowledge, all lust is burned aside. Jñāna-agni-dagdha, tam āhuḥ paṇḍitaṁ budhāḥ. And he's a learned, he's well versed. That is the explanation of this Bhagavad-gītā.

And let us stop here. You have . . . if there is any question, you can put.

Guest (1): If you're rich . . . were you saying if you're rich, you get knowledge . . . you get knowledge easier because you're rich?

Prabhupāda: No, no, no. I said that by your pious work you get four results. By your pious work . . . because every work, we have, we are just today discussing what is real work and what are the reaction of the work and what is not, I mean to say, prescribed work. These things are we have discussed. Now, so far the pious work, which is called, in Sanskrit language, which is called puṇya-karma, we get four results, four kinds of results.

By pious work, we get very good birth. Good birth means to take one's birth in aristocratic family or in rich family. That is, materially concerned, very good birth. So by pious work, one can become a good birth, can get his birth in a good family. And he can become a rich man also. Just, just like in this world we see, somebody is working very little, but he's gaining much.

Another body is working very hard the whole day—still, he's not getting much. Why? Because due to his pious work, he is getting very easily riches. So richness is also result of pious work. And similarly, one student is becoming very quickly a scholar—another, he cannot. So this is also result of pious work. Similarly, beauty is also due to pious work. I discussed this point. And what was your point?

Guest (1): Do you get more wisdom quicker or it's more to come by if you have a lot of money?

Prabhupāda: Not necessarily. I don't say that. That is different thing. But richness is due . . .

Guest (1): I understood what you said before.

Prabhupāda: Yes. Not necessarily that because a man is very rich, therefore he has got a very good brain also. No, not necessarily. Neither good brain can produce richness. Even there is one man, he's very intelligent man, but in the field of activities, he remains a poor man.

So neither intelligence is the cause of richness, nor richness is the cause of intelligence. These are two different things. But if one is pious, then his, as reaction of his pious acts, he becomes rich, he becomes wealthy, he becomes beautiful, he becomes learned. These things are stated in the scriptures. Janmaiśvarya-śruta-śrībhiḥ (SB 1.8.26). Janma-aiśvarya, four things, janma-aiśvarya-śruta . . . janma means birth, aiśvarya means richness, and śruta means education. (sirens) Is that point clear?

Is that point clear?

(aside) Please hear. Stop! Don't talk. We are talking seriously. Don't disturb.

Is that point clear?

Guest (1): Yes. Yeah thank you.

Prabhupāda: Yes. Any other question?

Young woman: If one is really pious, why should he care about materialistic things such as beauty and wealth?

Prabhupāda: Hmm? If one is pious, why he should . . .?

Young woman: Why should he care about things like beauty and wealth?

Prabhupāda: Oh. So war is not always impious. Do you understand? Sometimes war, fighting . . . so far, so far the Vedic conception of life is concerned, there are four classes, four classes: the intelligent class, the administrator class, the mercantile class . . . not only Vedic religion, this division is all over the world. There are four classes of men.

So for administrative class of men, it is a duty to protect the weak. Sometimes law and order requires violence. Just like the government maintains military, police force, because sometimes they are required. So when government employs some police force, some military force, that does not means impious. That is required.

Similarly, fighting or violence is not always impious. But a responsible person, he does not take violence unnecessarily. He considers things very nicely, and when there is no other alternative than to use violence, then he uses violence. Just like the government sometimes takes violence on the citizens. It is not the objective of the government to . . . (end)