750706 - Lecture SB 06.01.22 - Chicago
Nitāi: Oṁ namo bhagavate vāsudevāya. Oṁ namo bhagavate vāsudevāya. Oṁ namo bhagavate vāsudevāya. (devotees repeat) (leads chanting of verse, etc.)
- bandy-akṣaiḥ kaitavaiś cauryair
- garhitāṁ vṛttim āsthitaḥ
- bibhrat kuṭumbam aśucir
- yātayām āsa dehinaḥ
- (SB 6.1.22)
"That fallen brāhmaṇa of the name Ajāmila was giving trouble to all other men by forcibly arresting them, cheating them by gambling with weighted dice, or by directly plundering someone. Thus he used to earn his livelihood to maintain his family by giving trouble and pain to others."
- bandy-akṣaiḥ kaitavaiś cauryair
- garhitāṁ vṛttim āsthitaḥ
- bibhrat kuṭumbam aśucir
- yātayām āsa dehinaḥ
- (SB 6.1.22)
Bibhrat. Bibhrat kuṭumbam aśucir yātayām āsa dehinaḥ. Bibhrat, we have to maintain our body. This is called bibhrat. That is necessary. We have got this body in this material world. This is not spiritual world. In the spiritual world there is no necessity of maintaining the body. The body is spiritual. As we have got here in this material world, to maintain this body I require to eat, I require to sleep, I require to satisfy my sense and I require to defend—the four necessities. Āhāra-nidrā-bhaya-maithunaṁ ca. And spiritual body means these four kinds of bodily demands nil, no more. That is spiritual life. That means no eating, no sleeping, no sex and no defense. That Gosvāmīs, six Gosvāmīs in Vṛndāvana, they practiced it. Nidrāhāra-vihārakādi-vijitau. They conquered over sleeping, eating, mating and defending. Nidrā means sleeping, āhāra means eating, vihāra means sex. Nidrāhāra-vihārakādi-vijitau. Conquered.
So this is the advancement of spiritual life. When we conquer over these things, that means we have come to the spiritual platform. So, so long we have got this material body, it is not possible, but try to minimize. Try to minimize. Therefore Śrīla Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī. . . He was very rich man's son. His father's income, five hundred years ago, was twelve hundred thousand rupees. So now, you know, the exchange is. . . What is the exchange today? It is at least five hundred times increased. Anyway, that Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī, when left home. . . His father and uncle was very strictly observing. He was given very nice, beautiful wife and very beautiful house. But he was not very much satisfied. He wanted to join Caitanya Mahāprabhu. So his father was very strictly keeping guard, that "This boy may not go out," just like some of your parents do. (laughter) So. . . But this cannot be checked. So Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī, after all, by some tricks—after all, he was very intelligent, rich man's son—he went away to Caitanya Mahāprabhu. And his mother was advising to his father that "Why don't you handcuff this boy?" So his father was saying that "I have already handcuffed him with such beautiful wife and such beautiful residence, and he has opened this. Now what this material handcuff will do?" So anyway, he left father's home and approached Caitanya Mahāprabhu when He was in Jagannātha Purī, and he was entrusted to Svarūpa Dāmodara Gosvāmī, Caitanya Mahāprabhu's secretary, to take care of him.
So he was practicing this thing: how to conquer over eating, sleeping, mating and defense. It is a long story. Perhaps one who has read Caitanya-caritāmṛta. . . So at last, when he was living at Rādhā-kuṇḍa, he was taking every alternate day a little quantity of butter. That's all. Nothing else. So it is possible. When he left home, his father sent four men, and with arrangement that he would get four hundred rupees. In those days four hundred rupees mean at least twenty times. What is the four hundred rupees, twenty times?
Devotee: Eight thousand.
Prabhupāda: Eight thousand rupees for his personal expenditure. So he was utilizing that money by inviting sannyāsīs of Jagannātha Purī. There were many sannyāsīs. So Caitanya Mahāprabhu was also being invited. So after a few days, there was no invitation. So Caitanya Mahāprabhu inquired His secretary that "Why Raghunātha does not invite?" So he replied that "He refused to take his father's contribution." So Caitanya, "Oh, it is very nice." It is not that "Money will come from home, and I shall become a renounced order of life." No. He understood that "I have left my home. Why shall I take money from my father?" He refused.
So in this way Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī, one of the six Gosvāmīs, very important devotee, he used to live. He used to eat every alternate day, not daily. One day starving, and the next day, a little butter. But he was observing his regulative principles, taking thrice daily bath and offering daṇḍavat. . . What is called? Counting, numerical. Just like we count twenty-five rounds minimum, so Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī was also chanting by counting. Similarly, he was offering daṇḍavat. You offer daṇḍavat the same way. That is also counting. Saṅkhyā-pūrvaka-nāma-gāna-natibhiḥ. Saṅkhyā-pūrvaka, keeping a strength, a numerical strength, just like we are advised at least sixteen rounds. So these things were going on. Not that because he was taking little butter alternate day, he lost his strength. No. The strength was all right. So the fasting means if you don't feel weak, then you fast. Not that you imitate Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī. That is not possible in the beginning. But it is possible if you practice, if you practice. Nidrāhāra-vihārakādi-vijitau cātyanta-dīnau ca yau saṅkhyā-pūrvaka-nāma-gāna-natibhiḥ kālāvasānī-kṛtau. So everything is possible. But that is advanced spiritual life. It is no use imitating a higher authority, Haridāsa Ṭhākura. Just like he was chanting not sixteen rounds, but 164 rounds. So that is not possible. Gradually, śanaiḥ śanaiḥ, gradually, we have to practice.
So, so long we are in this material world, not in the spiritual world, still we have to live very honestly. Then there is hope for raising oneself to the spiritual platform. So here. . . Yesterday we have discussed, ajāmilaḥ nāmnā kaścid dvijaḥ (SB 6.1.21). Dvija, a brāhmaṇa. Dvija is not still brāhmaṇa. Dvija means he is initiated, dvija, means second birth. Saṁskārād bhaved dvijaḥ. By reformatory method one is initiated for the second time or second birth. Then he is educated by the Vedic literature. Just like we have got so many books. After initiation, one becomes bona fide student to study all these Vedic literatures. Then he become vipra. That is brahminical stage. Veda-pāṭhād bhaved vipraḥ. And not only simply reading, but when he realizes what is Brahman, then he is brāhmaṇa. Not easy, the stages. Veda-pāṭhād bhaved vipro brahma jānātīti brāhmaṇaḥ. This Brahman is impersonal Brahman, and still, you have to go above. When. . . Brahmeti paramātmeti bhagavān iti (SB 1.2.11). In the beginning, Brahman realization, impersonal. Then, as you gradually increase, then Paramātmā realization. That is meditation. That is meditation.
- Dhyānāvasthita-tad-gatena manasā paśyanti yaṁ yoginaḥ
- (SB 12.13.1)
The yogīs, by meditation, they observe the Supreme Personality of Godhead Viṣṇu within the heart. That is yoga system perfection. And above that, there is personal realization, Bhagavān. So when you realize the Personality of Godhead, then you become a Vaiṣṇava. This is gradual steps.
So this dvija, as soon as he contacted a prostitute. . . Prostitute, unchaste, puṁścalī. Another name is puṁścalī. Those who are, I mean to say, moved by another person, they are called puṁścalī. They become captivated by another person. So they, another name is prostitute. So this dvija, although he was initiated to make further progress to become brāhmaṇa and Vaiṣṇava, in the middle, he contacted one prostitute. Young man, he became a victim. Therefore kaścid dāsī-patiḥ, contacted and remained as husband, wife or friend. So by the contact of this prostitute, the result was naṣṭa-sadācāra, he became lost of all gentle activities. Naṣṭa-sadācāra. Sadācāra means. . . Sat means gentle, and ācāra means behavior, gentleman's behavior. What is that gentleman's behavior? That we teach, that "You don't take meat, don't have illicit sex, no gambling, no intoxication, rise early in the morning, take bath, chant Hare Kṛṣṇa, attend maṅgala-ārātrika." These are called sadācāra. So on account of his contact with this prostitute, although he was born in a brāhmaṇa family and he was reformed up to the point of initiation, he fell a victim. And as soon as he fell victim to that prostitute, naṣṭa-sadācāra. Dāsyāḥ saṁ. . . Why sadācāra, why he should lose? Dāsyāḥ saṁsarga-dūṣitaḥ: because he is associating with this prostitute, therefore the next sequence is that he should be bereft of all gentle behavior.
Therefore to create a first-class man, it requires great endeavor. It is not that you go to a school, colleges, and learn and smoke and do all nonsense, and you become elevated. It is a fourth class, fifth class. . . The modern educational system is producing not only fourth. . . Fourth class is also gentle; fifth class, sixth class. Fifth class, sixth class. . . The education means. . . What is the education? What is the symptom of education? That is described by Cāṇakya Paṇḍita, mātṛvat para-dāreṣu. The first educational symptom is that except one's own wife, any woman is mother. This is the first symptom of education. Mātṛvat para-dāreṣu para-dravyeṣu loṣṭravat. And other's property and money is just like garbage in the. . . Not very many years, say, about hundred years ago. . . You have heard the name, the Kashmir state. The Kashmir state was so strict, if somebody had stolen others' property and if it is proved, the thief's hands will be cut off. Still, I think, in Arabia there is. This is a strict law.
So if some golden ornament is lying on the street, out of this fear—and people were simple at the time—they will not touch. Exactly like garbage they will not touch, it was lying on the street. The law was that nobody should touch. If some golden ornament is there, the actual proprietor, he will come and pick it up. You do not require to assist him also, taking, "I shall. . ." No, you cannot touch. If you touch, your hands will be cut off. So if one learns this habit, that others' property, others' money is just like garbage, nobody touches. . . Mātṛvat para-dāreṣu para-dravyeṣu loṣṭravat, ātmavat sarva-bhūteṣu. And one who thinks like himself sarva-bhū. . ., all living entities. What is that? If I prick you, then you feel some pain, so why should you prick others? This is called ātmavat. What you feel yourself. . . If somebody cuts your throat, do you feel very happy? No. Then why should you cut throat of others, other animals or human beings? So these three things, Cāṇakya Paṇḍita has said that this is, if one has learned these three things, he is learned. Not that he has got a university degrees. No. Mātṛvat para-dāreṣu para-dravyeṣu loṣṭravat, ātmavat sarva-bhūteṣu.
So this is gentleman. This is educated, culture. So this man, Ajāmila, as soon as he became fallen down from the sadācāra, gentleman's behavior, the next stage is this, bandy-akṣaiḥ kaitavaiś cauryaiḥ. One must earn his livelihood. But he has fallen down to the sixth grade. First, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, or lower than that, everyone must have his means of livelihood. So what is the means of livelihood of the first-class man? That is said, paṭhana-pāṭhana yajana-yājana dāna-pratigraha. First-class man means brahminical class. Their occupational duty is first of all he must become a very learned scholar in the Vedic literature. Veda-pāṭhād bhaved vipraḥ. He must become a learned scholar. And after becoming a scholar, it is not that he will enjoy himself the knowledge. No. He will distribute the knowledge. This is one. . . That first-class man, or the brāhmaṇa, first of all he must become a learned scholar. If he is not scholar, what he will. . ., nonsense he will teach? So the first position is that he must become a learned scholar.
And the next business is to teach others, to make disciple. Formerly, even fifty year or sixty years ago in India, a brāhmaṇa would not accept anyone's service. Because whatever he has knowledge, he would sit down anywhere, underneath a tree or in the corridor of somebody, and he will invite the village small children, and they will go, and he will teach little grammar, little mathematics, gradually. And the children will bring from their father and mother. Somebody will bring rice. Somebody will bring ḍāl. Somebody will bring something. So he had no necessity of making any contract that "You give me so many dollars, then I shall teach you." No. Free. Free education. In this way India was free education.
So paṭhana-pāṭhana yajana-yājana. Then next business is brāhmaṇa should be a devotee, worshiping Deity, either Viṣṇu or sometimes other demigod. So yajana-yājana. He will personally do it, and he will teach others how to worship. Paṭhana-pāṭhana yajana. And his livelihood—by voluntary contribution. Whatever people will give, that's all right. People used to give brāhmaṇa. So paṭhana-pāṭhana yajana-yājana dāna-pratigraha. A brāhmaṇa would receive. . . People were very honest, that "This man is teaching our children. He does not charge. This man is teaching me how to worship, how to become well behaved." So they have no scarcity; enough. So he would simply use as much as he required; balance he will give in charity. Not that keep in stock for tomorrow. No. That is not brāhmaṇa's business. Whatever is come today, I use it for my necessities of life, and balance I give to the poor or somebody else, somebody else, somebody. . ., or make some festival. So paṭhana-pāṭhana yajana-yājana dāna-pratigraha. So we require some income for our maintenance. So this was the brāhmaṇa's business. There is no question of doing some business or making some profession or going to the office or going to the factory. This is not brāhmaṇa's business.
Then kṣatriya, next, second-class man. What is his livelihood? His livelihood: to take tax. The kṣatriyas were entrusted certain villages, that "You look after these villages, that the people are becoming well behaved." So kṣatriya's business was to see whether brāhmaṇa is actually acting as brāhmaṇa, a kṣatriya actually acting as kṣatriya. This was the ruler's business to see. And to see that nobody is unemployed, nobody is a devil's workshop. Because if you have no business, no occupation, then your brain will plan something. This plan is cauryam and cheating. They had no opportunity to plan all these things. So kṣatriya's income is to take some tax. What is that tax? Not in money. But people are engaged in agricultural work, so whatever he has produced, he gives twenty-five percent to the ruler. That's all. That includes income tax, this tax, that tax. No more tax. "Take. Whatever I have got, you take twenty-five percent." So this is kṣatriya's occupation, second class.
And the third class, vaiśya. Vaiśya means produce food grain, kṛṣi, agriculture, not produce food in the slaughterhouse. No. Slaughterhouse, even the sixth-class, seventh-class men. . . They did not know how to produce food, how to live. That means the aborigines in the jungle. They were hunting one animal, then eating, not that civilized nation, organized slaughterhouse. Oh, how horrible it is. If you want to (eat) animal, then you go to the jungle, kill one animal, and eat. The government is not going to maintain a slaughterhouse for you. You see? This is the civilization. So our eatables should be food grains—kṛṣi-go-rakṣya—and milk. Kṛṣi means by agriculture process you can produce fruits, flower, vegetables, then rice, wheat and pulses, and you have got milk. Then where is your want, scarcity? This is civilization. Now the meat-eating is meant for the sixth-class, seventh-class men who does not know, who remain naked, and they can neither produce food neither cloth in the jungle. It is for them. They also were not very much expert to maintain a slaughterhouse. When you need, you can kill one lower animal, not cow. The cow is not available in the jungle. You can have some deer or some boar. So these unimportant animals were killed by them. That is the sixth class, not the first class, second class, third class, fourth class. No. And the fourth-class man, who could not utilize his brain as first class, second class, third class, then he becomes fourth class—his business: to help, worker, these higher three classes.
So in this way everyone must have his means of livelihood. And I have already described that this is the way of livelihood. First-class man, this is livelihood. Second-class man, this is livelihood. And third-class man, this is livelihood. Fourth-class man. . . And below the fourth-class man, means fifth class, the fifth-class man, the jungle man, by hunting, like that. But this class of man, that they do not accept any of these livelihood means, but they cheat you. Cheat you. That we will find now, so many cheaters in big, big cities, and so many pickpockets, so many thieves, rogues, and now the present society is perplexed, "Crime, why and what to do?" You are maintaining sixth-class, seventh-class men. Your education is meant for that. Why you are afraid of crimes now? This is the result. Now enjoy the result. As you reap, so you. . . As you sow, so you reap. Therefore this movement is specially meant for making first-class, second-class men at least. Or even third class, fourth class. But what is this? You are producing sixth-class, seventh-class, tenth-class men, and you expect that there will be no crime, people will be happy, it will be peaceful. That is not possible. If you want to be happy, peaceful, then you must take this movement, Kṛṣṇa consciousness, and try to create at least a group of men first class, just like we are doing that. People will see their behavior, their character, their mode of life, and at least they will be attracted.
So this man, Ajāmila, on account of his association with a prostitute. . . That is illicit sex. Sex means with married wife. That's all. So this is the first falldown. Then he lost his all gentle behavior, and then he came to this platform, bandy-akṣaiḥ kaitavaiś cauryaiḥ. So as soon as one become fallen down from the standard of gentle life, they must take to this profession. There is no other alternative. You cannot check it. This is natural falldown, one after another. So, bandy-akṣaiḥ. . . (aside:) What time up to? Up to 7:30? It is finished. Eh?
Brahmānanda: The curtain closes in ten minutes.
Prabhupāda: Anyway, so bandī. Bandī means. . . Now especially in the United States, nobody goes out at night. No gentleman goes out at night. In our Brooklyn temple nobody goes out at night. Just see. America is so advanced in civilization, and the result is that one cannot go on a street at night. In India it is so poverty-stricken. Still, even in villages, they are freely moving, man, woman, at dead of night. They know there is no danger. Still, although they are so poverty-stricken now. . . You will be surprised that in 1942 there was an artificial famine created by the government. People suffered starvation, and poor men, they died out of starvation. But there was no report of stealing. No report. One American gentleman went there, "If this is the condition in our country, there would have been revolution. And these people even do not steal others' properties, dying starvation." (break) . . .lonely man is going. He will arrest him, "Give me whatever you have got; otherwise I will kill you." So this is bandī.
And next business was gambling, dice-playing, bandy-akṣaiḥ. Everything was there. It was. . . Of course, these historical incidences, and, some thousands and thousands of years ago happened. But because it is material world, these things were there at that time also. Now it has increased. Kali-yuga means it has increased. The same thieves, cheater, everything were there at that time. It was rare incidences. But now it has become daily affair due to the Kali-yuga. So his business was kaitavaiḥ. Kaitavaiḥ means cheating. Cheating. Now what kind of cheating? The cheaters will round, surround one man, and he says, "Have you seen some gold lump falling down? I have seen. One is lost." Then another man will come, "Sir, I have got this gold lump. If you pay me something, I will give you." But that is not gold, actually, but he creates a situation that "Somebody lost his gold lump. Now he has got. He wants to sell me. All right, I give you ten rupees. Give me." (laughter) This is called kaitavaiḥ. I know some things. (laughter) (laughs) So bandy-akṣaiḥ kaitavaiś cauryaiḥ, and then direct stealing.
So these kind of profession is garhitām, abominable. This is not human civilization. But this has become a common thing. Garhitāṁ vṛttim. Vṛttim means occupation. So if you become first-class man, you have occupation, that paṭhana-pāṭhana yajana. If you are second-class man, you have got your occupation. If you are third-class man, the kṛṣi-go-rakṣya. If you are fourth-class man, then serve other. If you are fifth-class man, then go to the jungle and hunt some animal and eat. Then these persons, they, cheating, stealing, these are the occupation of the tenth class, eighth class, like that. This is not honest. So if you produce such tenth-class and eighth-class and seventh-class men, then how you can expect without crime in the society? That is not possible. So we should know that this is the defect of civilization, that by education, by practice, by examples we are simply creating eighth class, tenth class of men, so there cannot be any peace. Therefore the human society must take this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement and teach people at least how to become second class, third class, if not first class. But there must be first-class men, second-class men. Then everything, social affair, political affair, will go very smoothly, without any trouble. Otherwise you have to meet with this class of profession—stealing, cheating and so on.
Thank you very much.
Devotees: Jaya Prabhupāda. (end).