721028 - Lecture NOD - Vrndavana
Pradyumna: (reading) ". . . sometimes divided into four parts, just as the ocean is sometimes divided into four parts, and there are different sections within each of these four divisions. Originally in Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu, the ocean is divided like the watery ocean, into east, west, north and south, while the sub-sections within these different divisions are called waves. As in the ocean, there are always different waves, either on the eastern side, the western side, the northern side or the southern side, so similarly, Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu has different waves.
"In the first part there are four waves, the first being a general description of devotional service. The second concerns the regulative principles for executing devotional service, and the third wave is devotional service in ecstasy. In the fourth is the ultimate goal, love of God. These will be explicitly described, along with their different symptoms.
"The authorized description of bhakti, or devotional service . . ."
Prabhupāda: Caitanya Mahāprabhu compared bhakti as the . . . a great ocean. So when He was speaking before Rūpa Gosvāmī, He said that, "It is just like a ocean. So I'll take a drop of it, and you taste it, and you'll understand what is this ocean." Just like by tasting one drop of seawater we can understand the taste of the whole ocean, similarly, Caitanya Mahāprabhu described a small portion of Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu. Bhakti-rasa-amṛta. Bhakti, devotional service, there is a rasa, taste, and the taste is amṛta, eternal.
Here also, we have got taste for any relationship. Just like we have got our relationship with master and servant. So this relationship is a perverted reflection of the real master and servant. Here it is perverted, because the master also does not love the servant, and the servant also does not love the master. The servant serves the master so long there is payment. If the payment is stopped, then no more the servant will be available.
But in the eternal world, the Kṛṣṇa's servant . . . so that is eternal, without any payment. Mama janmani janmanīśvare bhavatād bhaktir ahaitukī (CC Antya 20.29, Śikṣāṣṭaka 4). Ahaitukī. The servants of God, or Kṛṣṇa, they serve Kṛṣṇa not for any material gain. Ahaitukī. Therefore this word is used, ahaitukī, "without any cause of motive."
This is real bhakti. Therefore this bhakti word is applicable only in relationship with God, or Kṛṣṇa. In the material world there cannot be any use of the word bhakti. Because here the so-called devotion, service, is motivated. So this bhakti word is monopolized by Kṛṣṇa, and nobody else.
Pradyumna: "The authorized description of bhakti, or devotional service, following in the footsteps of previous ācāryas, can be summarized in the following statement of Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī: 'First-class devotional service is known by one's tendency to be fully engaged in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, serving the Lord favorably.' "
- ānukūlyena kṛṣṇānu-
- śīlanaṁ bhaktir uttamā
- (Brs. 1.1.11)
This is the first statement of bhakti given by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī. The . . . "First-class devotional service is known by one's tendency to be fully engaged in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, serving the Lord favorably," not unfavorably. Ānukūla, prātikūla. Ānukūlyasya saṅkalpa prātikūlyam vivarjanam. Bhakti means we should simply accept what is favorable to Kṛṣṇa. What is not favorable to Kṛṣṇa, that we shall not accept.
Just like Arjuna. In the beginning he declined to fight. He was thinking favorable to his own senses that, "If I kill my brother, grandfather, nephews, those who are on the other side . . . they have come to fight with me, so I can kill them; I can own victory over them. But what is the profit?
If my relatives, friends and all others die, then what is the use of my become victorious?" That was his . . . that means he was thinking in his favor. Kṛṣṇa wanted that, "You must fight. You are a kṣatriya. It is your duty to fight. You are My friend. If you go away, fly away from this battlefield, what people will say? That 'Kṛṣṇa's friend has gone away.' So this is not good."
So when he could not be convinced, then Kṛṣṇa had to speak the whole Bhagavad-gītā. Then after hearing Bhagavad-gītā, Kṛṣṇa inquired from Arjuna, "What is your decision now? Are you going to fight or not?" Arjuna said, "Yes, my illusion is over." Naṣṭo mohaḥ smṛtir labdhā tvat-prasādān madhusūdana. So kariṣye vacanaṁ tava (BG 18.73): "Yes, I shall fight." So this is favorable to Kṛṣṇa. So we have to see what is favorable to Kṛṣṇa, not sense gratification, not favorable to me, or to my country or to my society. No self-interest. Only Kṛṣṇa's interest. That is bhakti.
So by fighting, Arjuna became a great devotee. Bhakto 'si priyo 'si me (BG 4.3). Kṛṣṇa certified that, "You are My greatest devotee. You are My very confidential friend." But what did he do? He did not read Vedānta philosophy. He was a gṛhastha, a king, engaged in fighting. He knew how to fight only. He did not know what is Vedānta philosophy. But still, he became a great devotee of Kṛṣṇa. Bhakto 'si. So what is the criterion? The criterion is that he fought favorably. He did favorably to Kṛṣṇa consciousness.
That is described in the Caitanya-caritāmṛta, what is the difference between kāma and—kāma means lust—and love. Kāma and prema. Prema is love, and kāma is lust. It appears similar. In the material world, lust is going on in the name of love. A boy loves a girl, a girl loves a boy, but actually the boy also wants sense gratification and the girls also want sense gratification. That is not love. As soon as there is any difficulty in sense gratification, immediately there is divorce. So there is no love. There is only lust. In the material world there is no love.
Therefore Caitanya-caritāmṛta kar, the author of Caitanya-caritāmṛta, he has distinguished between love and lust. He says, ātmendriya-prīti-vāñchā tāre nāma kāma (CC Adi 4.165). When you want to satisfy your senses, that is called lust. Kṛṣṇendriya-prīti vāñchā dhare prema nāma. When you want to satisfy the senses of Kṛṣṇa, that is love.
Just like Arjuna. In the beginning, he wanted to satisfy his own senses, "I shall not fight because if the other party, my brothers and grandfathers, they live, I shall be happy." So that is kāma. That is not prema. But when he agreed to fight because Kṛṣṇa wanted it . . . nimitta-mātraṁ bhava savya-sācin (BG 11.33). So that is prema. So kṛṣṇa-prema can be executed in so many ways. Simply Kṛṣṇa should be satisfied. That is prema. That is Kṛṣṇa consciousness.
So at the present moment Kṛṣṇa, in the Bhagavad-gītā, wanted: sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja (BG 18.66). Kṛṣṇa wanted Arjuna—Arjuna means everyone—that they should surrender to Kṛṣṇa and be engaged in the service of Kṛṣṇa. So people . . . Kṛṣṇa, when we speak of Kṛṣṇa, means God, the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
So this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is propagating that to serve Kṛṣṇa. When Kṛṣṇa was present, He demanded that, "You surrender unto Me," and we are preaching, "You surrender unto Kṛṣṇa." What is the difference? There is no difference. So the same thing, what was spoken five thousand years ago by Kṛṣṇa personally, we, Kṛṣṇa cons . . . we Kṛṣṇa conscious men . . . because we are known in the world as Hare Krishna People. They write in the newspaper, "The Hare Krishna People." So our preaching is the same. We don't change. We present, therefore, Bhagavad-gītā As It Is.
Kṛṣṇa says that everyone should surrender unto Him. We are preaching the same philosophy that, "You surrender to Kṛṣṇa." Kṛṣṇa says, man-manā bhava mad-bhakto mad-yājī māṁ namaskuru (BG 18.65). We say the same thing. We ask everyone that "You become a devotee of Kṛṣṇa. You think of Kṛṣṇa constantly. You worship Kṛṣṇa. You offer your obeisances unto Kṛṣṇa." So this is favorable. If we preach what Kṛṣṇa said five thousand years ago, that is favorable. That is Kṛṣṇa consciousness. To act in favor of Kṛṣṇa means Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement. Go on.
Pradyumna: "The purport is that one may also be in Kṛṣṇa consciousness unfavorably, but that cannot be counted as pure devotional service. Pure devotional service should be free from the desire for any material benefit or for sense gratification, as these two desires are cultivated through fruitive activities and philosophical speculation."
Prabhupāda: Yes. Sense gratification . . . I, as I was explaining . . . I finished before. Caitanya-caritāmṛta kar says, bhukti-mukti-siddhi-kāmī sakali aśānta (CC Madhya 19.149). Bhukti. Bhukti means karmīs. They want sense enjoyment. So long they live here in this body, they enjoy their senses to the topmost, and they make provision for the next life, to be elevated in the heavenly planet to enjoy in the Nandana-kānana with the demigods. More standard of living, enjoyment more opulent. That is the desire of the karmīs.
Jñānīs, they say brahma satyaṁ jagan mithyā: "This world is false. There is no enjoyment. Actual enjoyment, to merge into the existence of Brahman." So that is also a subtle sense enjoyment. Leave this world and enter into Brahman. Then you feel happy. So that is also sense enjoyment.
Similarly, yogīs, they also want power, material power. Aṇimā laghimā siddhi, aṣṭa-siddhi. So if you have some power, you can fly in the air, you can walk over the water, you can get anything you desire immediately. These are yoga-siddhis. So that is also satisfying own sense gratification.
So except bhakti, everything is for sense gratification. That is unfavorable. Kṛṣṇa does not want to satisfy anyone's sense. That is not Kṛṣṇa's business. Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme. He wants everyone should serve Him. He's not going to serve anyone. That is Kṛṣṇa's position. Therefore anyone who serves Kṛṣṇa and preaches this philosophy, to serve Kṛṣṇa, that is favorable. Ānukūlyena kṛṣṇānuśīlanam (CC Madhya 19.167).
Pradyumna: "Generally, people are engaged in different activities to get some material profit, while most philosophers are engaged in proposing transcendental realization through volumes of word jugglery and speculation. Pure devotional service must always be freed from such fruitive activities and philosophical speculations. One has to learn Kṛṣṇa consciousness, or pure devotional service . . ."
Prabhupāda: Yes. Jñāna-karmādy-anāvṛtam (CC Madhya 19.167). Pure devotional service should be uncovered by the motive of nirbheda-brahmānusandhana, the motive of karma and motive of jñāna. That is pure devotional service. No motive.
- ānukūlyena kṛṣṇānu-
- śīlanam . . .
- (Brs. 1.1.11)
Simply to do things which Kṛṣṇa wants to do, that is bhakti. That is pure bhakti. Go on.
Pradyumna: "One has to learn Kṛṣṇa consciousness, or pure devotional service, from the authorities by spontaneous loving service."
Prabhupāda: Spontaneous. This service should be spontaneous, not forced. Just like a father loves his son spontaneously, a young man likes to love a young girl spontaneously. So bhakti should be like that. As soon as one hears the name of Kṛṣṇa, immediately, spontaneously, he should be ready to serve Him. That is pure devotion. Not that forced. In the beginning, we have to force that, "You rise early in the morning. There is maṅgala ārātrika. You have to perform it."
But when this function will be done spontaneously, "Oh, this is the time to offer maṅgala ārātrika to my Lord . . ." That is wanted. That is wanted. Not that, "Oh, it is a heavy burden to rise early in the morning and to offer maṅgala ārātrika." That is not spontaneous. But one has to act under the direction of spiritual master and śāstra, which is called vidhi-bhakti, regulative devotional service. So after one being trained in regulative devotional service, he comes to the platform of spontaneous service.
We have got an example in this connection. Formerly there was child marriage. Boys and girls were married at the age of ten years, twelve years. So at that time, there was no practically love. But the guardians, they induced the girl to go and offer her husband some eatables, to give her some service. In this way . . .
That was just like regulative. But when they actually come in the platform of attraction, there is no need of direction. So the spontaneous love, when spontaneously we shall serve Kṛṣṇa, without any obligation, without any force, that is required. Spontaneous love, rāga-mārga (CC Adi 4.15-16).
Pradyumna: "This devotional service is a sort of cultivation. It is not simply inaction for people who like to be inactive or devote their time to silent meditation. There are many different methods for people who want this, but cultivation of Kṛṣṇa consciousness is different. The particular word used by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī is this connection is anuśīlana, or cultivation by following the predecessor teachers, or ācāryas. As soon as we say 'cultivation,' we must refer to activity. Without activity, consciousness alone cannot help us."
Prabhupāda: Yes. People say that inactivity, silence, that is perfection. But no. In bhakti cultivation, there is no such thing silence. Always active. The same example can be given that Arjuna . . . Arjuna became devotee not by silence, but by being active. Activity, spontaneous activity: "I have to do this. My Lord will be pleased. So I have to do this."
Activity. But if I have no idea what is Lord, what does He want, how He's pleased, if we do not know all these things, naturally there will be no activity. But one who knows what is this Lord, what does He want, what is my relationship with Him, then there is activity. So actually, that bhakti, bhakti is not silence. Bhakti is activity.
Just like personally, up to seventy years, I was practically doing nothing. But at the age of seventy years, by the grace of God, Kṛṣṇa, there was inspiration—I went to Western country, not to sit down there silently. So bhakti, the path of bhakti, is not inactivity. Actual activity begins when one is situated on devotional service.
It is explained in the Bhagavad-gītā, brahma-bhūtaḥ prasannātmā. When one is brahma-bhūtaḥ, self-realized, he's prasannātmā, joyful, ānandamaya. Brahmā-bhūtaḥ prasannātmā na śocati na kāṅkṣati (BG 18.54). He has no desire to fulfill, neither he has lamentation. Here, in the material world, we hanker after things which we do not possess. "I want this. I want that." And we cry when the thing is lost. Na śocati.
But a brahma-bhūtaḥ, when one is self-realized, when one knows that he's not this body, he's spirit soul, he's part and parcel of Brahman, at that time he becomes joyful. Brahmā-bhūtaḥ prasannātmā na śocati na kāṅkṣati, samaḥ sarveṣu bhūteṣu. And he sees everyone on the equal footing, because Brahman-realized.
He knows everyone is not this body; he's spirit soul, part and parcel of Supreme Brahman. This position, when one comes to this platform, brahma-bhūtaḥ stage, mad-bhaktiṁ labhate parām. That is the stage to be promoted to the Brahman activity.
The nirviśeṣa, impersonalists, they want to stop activity. But actually Bhagavān, Kṛṣṇa, says that real activity begins when one is self-realized, one is situated in Brahman realization. Brahman realization does not mean to stop. Brahman realization means to act for Kṛṣṇa, not for sense gratification. That is Brahman realization. Mad-bhaktiṁ labhate parām (BG 18.54). And in that bhakti stage, bhaktyā māṁ abhijānāti yāvān yaś cāsmi tattvataḥ (BG 18.55).
Actually, simply by executing devotional service, being freed from all material contamination, when one is engaged in devotional service, bhakti, that process, bhakti process, can help one to understand what is God. Bhaktyā mām abhijānāti. It is not said that by karma, "karmaṇā mām abhijānāti." No. "Jñānena mām abhijānāti." Abhijānāti, tattvataḥ, if one wants to know God in truth, then he must take to devotional service. And this devotional service, actual devotional service, begins when one is Brahman realized.
So one may argue, "Does it mean that all the bhaktas . . . we see they are not even educated. How he has realized Brahman?" That answer is given in the Bhagavad-gītā that:
- māṁ ca avyabhicāriṇi
- bhakti-yogena yaḥ sevate
- sa guṇān samatītyaitān
- brahma-bhūyāya kalpate
- (BG 14.26)
This very platform of serving Kṛṣṇa, avyabhicāriṇi, without any adulteration, means without any motive . . . when one is engaged in Kṛṣṇa's service without any motive . . . not that, "I establish a Deity in the temple with a motive that people will come, will give money, and I shall make it a path of earning my livelihood." That is not devotion. Devotion is without any motive. Anyābhilāṣitā-śūnyam (Brs. 1.1.11).
So without any motive, when one is engaged in devotional service, that is brahma-bhūtaḥ stage. That is liberated stage. According to Bhāgavata, liberation, mukti, means to be situated in one's constitutional position. That is called mukti. Muktir hitvā anyathā rūpaṁ svarūpeṇa vyavasthitiḥ (SB 2.10.6). Hitvā anyathā rūpa.
Now, because we are designated, we have got this body, designation; therefore we are situated in different positions. Somebody's working for his family. Somebody's working for his community. Somebody's working for his nation. But this is anyathā rūpam. This is depending on the bodily designation. "I am American," "I am Indian," "Therefore I must sacrifice everything for my country, for my nation." This is anyathā rūpam. And when we engage ourself that "I am Kṛṣṇa's part and parcel. Kṛṣṇa is my master. I am His eternal servant. I must work for Kṛṣṇa," that is mukti. That is liberation.
So anyone who is working for spreading Kṛṣṇa consciousness, he has no other motive than to satisfy Kṛṣṇa. He has no other motive than to satisfy the representative of Kṛṣṇa. Therefore they are hitvā anyathā rūpam.
These European, American boys, they are working for Kṛṣṇa. It is practical. They are not working for their community, country or nation. Neither Kṛṣṇa is their God. According to common understanding, in the dictionary it is said Kṛṣṇa is Hindu God. But they are not working for Hindu God. They are working for Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa says that:
- sarva-yoniṣu kauteya
- sambhavanti mūrtayaḥ yāḥ
- tāsāṁ mahad-yonir brahma
- ahaṁ bīja-pradaḥ pitā
- (BG 14.4)
They have understood this philosophy that Kṛṣṇa is neither Indian nor Hindu or this or that. Kṛṣṇa is Supreme Personality of Godhead. He's father of everyone. They've understood in this spirit. Therefore they're working for Kṛṣṇa, without any motive. This is practical. Not only Europe and . . . everywhere. Everywhere, all over the world. Why? Because Kṛṣṇa consciousness is there in everybody.
Nitya-siddha kṛṣṇa-bhakti (CC Madhya 22.107). This devotional service of Kṛṣṇa is dormant in everyone. It is . . . it has to be awakened. That's all. Śravaṇādi-śuddha-citte karaye udaya. Simply by hearing, śṛṇvatāṁ sva-kathāḥ kṛṣṇaḥ puṇya-śravaṇa-kīrtanam (SB 1.2.17). If you simply hear Bhagavad-gītā, Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam from the representative of Kṛṣṇa . . . as Caitanya Mahāprabhu directed, bhāgavata paro diya bhāgavata sthane. One should hear about Bhāgavata from the devotee. There are two kinds of Bhāgavata: the book Bhāgavata and the person bhāgavata.
So we have to relish the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, the contents of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, from a devotee who is self-realized. Then it will be very nice. Satāṁ prasaṅgād mama vīrya-saṁvido bhavanti hṛt-karṇa-rasāyanāḥ kathāḥ (SB 3.25.25). When you hear about Kṛṣṇa from a Kṛṣṇa devotee, it becomes very pleasing to the ear and the heart. Hṛt-karṇa-rasāyanāḥ kathāḥ. Therefore to become Kṛṣṇa conscious, to become a devotee of Kṛṣṇa . . . tad-vijñānārthaṁ sa gurum evābhigacchet (MU 1.2.12). Tad vidhi praṇipātena paripraśnena sevayā. This is the process.
So this Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu is the science of devotional service. If one wants to become a devotee of Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead . . . when we speak of Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa means all Viṣṇu forms. All Viṣṇu forms.
- rāmādi-mūrtiṣu kalā-niyamena tiṣṭhan
- nānāvatāram akarod bhuvaneṣu kintu
- kṛṣṇaḥ svayaṁ samabhavad paramaḥ pumān yo . . .
- (Bs. 5.39)
All incarnations, they are also Kṛṣṇa, expansion of Kṛṣṇa. But Kṛṣṇa, this Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa, He's the Supreme Person. Īśvaraḥ paramaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ (Bs. 5.1).
So these things are explained in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu, as they are in the Bhagavad-gītā, Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. The summary, the juice of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, Bhagavad-gītā, devotional service, is given in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu.
We have translated this book as Nectar of Devotion. And you'll be pleased to hear that in some of the universities in USA, this book has been recommended as study book in the religious class. They're now reading regularly.
So we shall stop now. It is dark. There is no light? Hare Kṛṣṇa. Thank you very much.
Devotees: (break) (end)